Title insurers conduct a title search on public records before they agree to insure the purchaser or mortgagee of land. Specifically, after a real estate sales contract has been executed and escrow opened, a title professional will search the public records to look for any problems with the home’s title. This search typically involves a review of land records going back many years.
Types of policies
Standardized forms of title insurance exist for owners and lenders. The lender’s policies include a form specifically for construction loans, though this is rarely used today.
The owner’s policy assures a purchaser that the title to the property is vested in that purchaser and that it is free from all defects, liens and encumbrances except those listed as exceptions in the policy or are excluded from the scope of the policy’s coverage. It also covers losses and damages suffered if the title is unmarketable.The policy also provides coverage for loss if there is no right of access to the land. Although these are the basic coverages, expanded forms of residential owner’s policies exist that cover additional items of loss.
The liability limit of the owner’s policy is typically the purchase price paid for the property. As with other types of insurance, coverages can also be added or deleted with an endorsement. There are many forms of standard endorsements to cover a variety of common issues. The premium for the policy may be paid by the seller or buyer as the parties agree. Usually a custom in a particular state or county on this matter reflects in most local real estate contracts. One should inquire about the cost of title insurance before signing a real estate contract that provides that he pay for title charges. A real estate attorney, broker, escrow officer (in the western states), or loan officer can provide detailed information as to the price of title search and insurance before the real estate contract is signed. Title insurance coverage lasts as long as the insured retains an interest in the land insured and typically no additional premium is paid after the policy is issued.
This is sometimes called a loan policy and it is issued only to mortgage lenders. Generally speaking, it follows the assignment of the mortgage loan, meaning that the policy benefits the purchaser of the loan if the loan is sold. For this reason, these policies greatly facilitate the sale of mortgages into the secondary market. That market is made up of high volume purchasers such as Fannie Mae and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation as well as private institutions.
The American Land Title Association (“ALTA”) forms are almost universally used in the country though they have been modified in some states. In general, the basic elements of insurance they provide to the lender cover losses from the following matters:
- The title to the property on which the mortgage is being made is either
- Not in the mortgage loan borrower,
- Subject to defects, liens or encumbrances, or
- There is no right of access to the land.
- The lien created by the mortgage:
- is invalid or unenforceable,
- is not prior to any other lien existing on the property on the date the policy is written, or
- is subject to mechanic’s liens under certain circumstances.
As with all of the ALTA forms, the policy also covers the cost of defending insured matters against attack.
Elements 1 and 2 are important to the lender because they cover its expectations of the title it will receive if it must foreclose its mortgage. Element 3 covers matters that will interfere with its foreclosure.
Of course, all of the policies except or exclude certain matters and are subject to various conditions.
There are also ALTA mortgage policies covering single or one-to-four family housing mortgages. These cover the elements of loss listed above plus others. Examples of the other coverages are loss from forged releases of the mortgage and loss resulting from encroachments of improvements on adjoining land onto the mortgaged property when the improvements are constructed after the loan is made.